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Category Archives: Clues of Identity

Helpful tools of Analysis; Clues which provide likely Traits and Characteristics to better understand others.

“To Thine Ownself be true..”

exposedtruth

Polonius:

This above all: to thine own self be true,

And it must follow, as the night the day,

Thou canst not then be false to any man.

Farewell, my blessing season this in thee!

Laertes:

Most humbly do I take my leave, my lord.

Hamlet Act
1, scene 3, 78–82

 
In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Polonius’s shared this counsel with his son Laertes, who was departing on a journey. It is wise counsel to us all.  As I follow the growing research in medical sciences, it becomes more apparent that dishonesty with others,  has a greater impact on our own health.  In neuroscience, it has been documented that even the very organization and process of the changing brain is intimately connected to the truths and falsehood we personally embrace.  
 
Lies stem from fears. It orbits a deeply rooted insecurity created from the dialogue we share with ourselves.  The false statements such as “I am worthless” or ” I am not important” are planted by primary support authorities when we were children, and they reside close to the center  or seat of the pathology.  Over time, we coat this falsehood in added layers , with what we believe to be “our evidence” , from how we are treated, how others react to us or how we expect others to regard us. This leads us to a desperate course of  snatching any available opportunities to “feel a moment of gratification” at the expense of honest and just means.  We find ways to meet our immediate needs like a homeless child, stealing candy from a candy store when we could not afford the costs.  Under intense judgement, we grow up and learn whatever we have to in order to avoid the punishments attached to our wrong actions.  Over the course of years, we will either look inward and unravel the lies that bind us, or we will continue our journey to become skillful in obtaining what is not ours, by whatever means necessary.  We do this while we find that particular means to avoid judgement and criticism of those “righteous people” who dare to ‘ look down on me’.  We steal, and rationalize.  We injure, and redirect blame.  But avoiding truth and living in the denial of our core negative self regard, always catches up with us.  We are funny that way.  Sometimes we think it is better to go on living with our lies, despite the snowball of growing consequences, than to to just own our lies and confront them as needed. Just because we have injuries from our past, does not make our distorted “view of self”  true.  We just make it true.  We live to fulfil it in full without considering its impact.
 
Well, I was not planning to dissect this pathology of our mindset, but there it is.  
 
Recently, I have read articles about uncovering lies. 
 
One way in which we are not even conscious, is how it affects our handwriting.  See the following. 

Lying affects the way we write

..This study shows that the system can identify when participants have written the truth and when they have lied: For example, the pressure exerted on the page when the participants were writing false symptoms was greater than when they were writing about their true medical condition.The regularity of the strokes when writing a lie,reflected in the height and width of the letters, was significantly
different from the regularity of the strokes when writing the truth.Differences in duration, space and pressure were also found in false writing.
The researchers were also able to divide the types of handwriting into more distinct profiles (very small or large handwriting, etc.) and to find other more substantial differences associated with each writing profile.

According to the researchers, when a person writes something false, cognitive load is created in the brain
and this load creates competing demands for resources in the brain, such that operations that we usually perform automatically, like writing, are affected.
They added that the current study found that false
medical information in “laboratory conditions” creates cognitive load that enables the computer system to identify changes in handwriting,
and it can be assumed that in a natural situation, together with the need to lie to the doctor, the cognitive load would be even greater.

Here is an interesting article on clues about lying.

How To Tell If Someone Is Lying: The Tell-Tale Signs

  • TV shows and folk wisdom have suggested commonly held beliefs for spotting lairs, but the truth is they’re not always accurate
  • A liar will tend to give too much information and they often struggle to
    repeat their original performance if asked to recount the events in
    opposite order.
  • liars tend to avoid “I” statements and use third-person pronouns like “he” and “she” instead.
  • people who are speaking honestly will maintain eye contact for about 60 percent of a conversation. When one lies, they work at keeping eye contact
  • so as to appear honest.
  • A lliar will often engage in more eye contact without much blinking.
  • Liars will subconsciously point their feet towards the exit of the room.
  • A smile often surfaces from the liar when they think they’ve successfully deceived you.
  • Often they nod their head while denying or shake their head while agreeing.

This note was created from Liner.
By braindocPage with highlights – http://getliner.com/uGmJ7
Original page – http://www.medicaldaily.com/pulse/how-tell-if-someone-lying-tell-tale-signs-327998
Let us agree make it a regular habit to review our “self talk” the next time we find our words are not ringing quite true.  
Our integrity and health depend on it.
 
Greg
 
liars
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Women: A Man’s Finer “Points”

Women: A Man’s finer Points

I have recently read an article that underscores predisposing components for behavioural tendencies which starts in utero. What this article states is how testosterone in the development of the foetus plays a very significant role in adults.  In females, there does not seem to be a great deal of influence.  However, numerous studies seem to consistently show that the behavioural tendencies of men are correlated with the level of testosterone.


The article also states that the influence of testosterone in utero also contributes to the finger length as well.

 

This is not the first time I have seen articles about finger length and testosterone levels in utero. But what was interesting was how this article  used a ratio of the 2nd and 4rth digits for classification.
 
In other words, if the index finger and ring finger is close in length, then the level of testosterone was appropriately supplied in utero.
 
Having appropriate levels also seem to contribute to a more agreeable constitution as well ( as represented in the study). 

  

 

image 

 For example, a male having a narrow ratio with the Index to ring finger seems to indicate he would be less argumentative with his female counterpart as well as with women in general.  In fact, he would more likely to be a good listener and interact well with children.   Sounds like a “handy” thing to know, doesn’t it? So, Have I stirred your interest?  Enjoy the article below.



A video related to this topic can be found here:


PUBLIC RELEASE: 18-FEB-2015 

Can you judge a man by his fingers?
Study finds link between relative lengths of index and ring fingers in men and behavior towards women
MCGILL UNIVERSITY

SHARE PRINT E-MAIL
This news release is available in French.

Maybe you should take a good look at your partner’s fingers before putting a ring on one. Men with short index fingers and long ring fingers are on average nicer towards women, and this unexpected phenomenon stems from the hormones these men have been exposed to in their mother’s womb, according to a new study by researchers at McGill University. The findings might help explain why these men tend to have more children. The study, showing a link between a biological event in fetal life and adult behaviour, was published in the journal Personality and Individual Differences.

Men’s index fingers are generally shorter than their ring fingers. The difference is less pronounced in women. Previous research has found that digit ratio – defined as the second digit length divided by the fourth digit length – is an indication of the amount of male hormones, chiefly testosterone, someone has been exposed to as a fetus: the smaller the ratio, the more male hormones. The McGill study suggests that this has an impact on how adult men behave, especially with women.

“It is fascinating to see that moderate variations of hormones before birth can actually influence adult behaviour in a selective way,” says Simon Young, a McGill Emeritus Professor in Psychiatry and coauthor of the study.

Smiles and compliments

Several studies have been conducted previously to try to assess the impact of digit ratio on adult behaviour. This one is the first to highlight how finger lengths affect behaviour differently depending on the sex of the person you are interacting with. “When with women, men with smaller ratios were more likely to listen attentively, smile and laugh, compromise or compliment the other person,” says Debbie Moskowitz, lead author and Professor of Psychology at McGill. They acted that way in sexual relationships, but also with female friends or colleagues. These men were also less quarrelsome with women than with men, whereas the men with larger ratios were equally quarrelsome with both. For women though, digit ratio variation did not seem to predict how they behaved, the researchers report.

Digit ratio and children

For 20 days, 155 participants in the study filled out forms for every social interaction that lasted 5 minutes or more, and checked off a list of behaviours they engaged in. Based on prior work, the scientists classified the behaviours as agreeable or quarrelsome. Men with small digit ratios reported approximately a third more agreeable behaviours and approximately a third fewer quarrelsome behaviours than men with large digit ratios.

A previous study had found that men with smaller digit ratios have more children. “Our research suggests they have more harmonious relationships with women; these behaviors support the formation and maintenance of relationships with women,” Moskowitz says. “This might explain why they have more children on average.”

The researchers were surprised to find no statistically relevant link between dominant behaviours and digit ratios. They suggest future research could study specific situations where male dominance varies – such as competitive situations with other men – to see whether a correlation can be established.

###

This study was funded by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – Canada.

“Fetal exposure to androgens, as indicated by digit ratios (2D:4D), increases men’s agreeableness with women” D.S. Moskowitz, Rachel Sutton, David C. Zuroff, Simon N. Young, Personality and Individual Differences, March 2015 (available online 27 November 2014) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886914006400

 

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The Wrongs of Write

hwrit

I have always enjoyed the study of Handwriting Analysis (a.k.a Psychographology). I read my first book on this topic when I was in 7th grade. Over the years I have collected many samples and built an ever expanding reference resource of handwring analysis I have acquired, I have been able to distill my own composite way of interpreting the styles of penmanship I come across when an occasion arises.

If there is anything to be revealed in handwriting, I have learned that a a few sentences are of minimal benefit.  In fact, if one wishes to have a more accurate reading, two pages of script is required.  There is really not anything magical about this skill.  Personality is like a pattern of traits that has settled into a  mental routine of habit.  It is much like taking a walk through the woods, where your grass worn path is different from other explorers in the same woods.  Once a person settles into their own familiar journey, it becomes a less conscious process.  Since the brain drives the nerves and innervates muscles for grip, pressure and coordination, it becomes apparent that the “way we write” is a reflection of neuromuscular mechanics that unconsciously leave some consistent measure of the mental habits which otherwise would not be readily apparent.

After many years of much study in Psychographology, I have concluded that my own style of analysis is quite reliable and accurate.  It is not as simple as sharing “how” I approach the analysis or exactly “what” I look for to disclose traits.  In fact, I firmly believe that true validity rests in the consistency and congruency of the script.

For example, just because you see a dotted “i” appearing as a circle, does not mean the writer is artistic, as some books may claim.  Accuracy has more to do with recurrence or formations than single instances of letters.  Actually, no one person writes the same everyday.  Pressure, slant and size frequently changes, which provide more information about the dynamic state of an individual, This is where the window of the writers energy, engagement and buoyancy of behaviour is evidenced.  Letter formation however, is more consistently regular and therefore more likely to provide clues to the more stable component of traits. This where clues of habits and tendency of routine are revealed. 

There are many psychograpologists writing books about “how to interpret handwriting” and many critics who are quick to claim this field as a “Pseudoscience”, lacking any true validity.  But as I shared earlier, if validity is the goal, it is only possible  through the analyst’s years of experience and careful evaluation for reinforcing “parts” that reliable clues can be evidence with any probable confidence.

In the article that follows, researchers are now finding new applications for evaluating health claims through handwriting samples by computer assisted determination of validity.  Maybe it is time for some critics to reconsider their posture on this valuable tool for character assessment.


Is this the end of ‘fake exemptions? ‘ it is possible to detect when we provide false information regarding our health conditions through handwriting

December 3, 2014
University of Haifa
A new study aims to develop a computerized system that can be used to detect medical fraud. Medical fraud has become a common phenomenon in recent years, researchers say. There are many cases of doctors encountering patients who want sick leave or compensation from the various health insurance providers, and who lie about their medical condition. The financial cost to health insurance providers in the United States due to false reporting is estimated at fifty billion dollars a year, not including the cost of wasted work days of doctors and the cost of the various tests performed.

It is possible to detect when we provide false information regarding our health conditions through our handwriting, according to a new study conducted at the University of Haifa. The study used a computerized system, which was developed by Prof. Sara Rosenblum from the University of Haifa and that was patented recently, to analyze the handwriting process. “Our findings can provide the health care system and insurance companies with a fairly simple tool with which to discover medical fraud, without the need for intrusive devices such as the polygraph that tries to detect physiological changes,” said Dr. Gil Luria, one of the study’s conductors.

Medical fraud has become a common phenomenon in Israel and abroad in recent years. There are many cases of doctors encountering patients who want sick leave or compensation from the various health insurance providers, and who lie about their medical condition. The financial cost to health insurance providers in the United States due to false reporting is estimated at fifty billion dollars a year, not including the cost of wasted work days of doctors and the cost of the various tests performed.

In a previous study conducted several years ago, Dr. Gil Lurie and Prof. Sara Rosenblum performed a pilot study of the computerized writing kit in which they found that deceptive and truthful writing in general can be detected. In their present study, performed together with Dr. Allon Kahana, the sample was increased significantly to include 98 participants. More importantly, however, this time the researchers chose to focus on testing the reliability of specific information — medical data — due to the difficulty that the health care system has in checking when patients are lying to them.

The participants were asked to write two paragraphs on the condition of their health, the first describing their real situation and the second describing fabricated medical symptoms. The participants wrote the two paragraphs on a computerize writing kit developed by Prof. Rosenblum that obtains data regarding the pressure being exerted on the page, the rate and speed of writing, the duration and number of times the pen remains raised in comparison with the duration and number of times it is touching the paper, the size of the letters, and more.

This study shows that the system can identify when participants have written the truth and when they have lied: For example, the pressure exerted on the page when the participants were writing false symptoms was greater than when they were writing about their true medical condition. The regularity of the strokes when writing a lie, reflected in the height and width of the letters, was significantly different from the regularity of the strokes when writing the truth. Differences in duration, space and pressure were also found in false writing. The researchers were also able to divide the types of handwriting into more distinct profiles (very small or large handwriting, etc.) and to find other more substantial differences associated with each writing profile.

According to the researchers, when a person writes something false, cognitive load is created in the brain and this load creates competing demands for resources in the brain, such that operations that we usually perform automatically, like writing, are affected. They added that the current study found that false medical information in “laboratory conditions” creates cognitive load that enables the computer system to identify changes in handwriting, and it can be assumed that in a natural situation, together with the need to lie to the doctor, the cognitive load would be even greater.

Even a doctor who is very knowledgeable will find it difficult to detect health fraud when a patient presents false symptoms from their field of expertise, so doctors are themselves trying to develop tools to solve the problem, however with very limited success. The writing kit provides a non-intrusive and simple testing device. Despite technological progress handwriting is still the most common means used for daily communication, and we see clearly that every person has their own writing style. With a handwriting diagnostic kit we can analyze whether the person is writing the truth or lies, “the researchers concluded.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Haifa. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

 

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Slideshow Presentation: Revealing your Child’s behavior in Context

Presentation Given to Parents in Atibia, Brazil.

Here I discussed importance of knowing your child in context. I also discussed a brief method of Psychiatry in assessing cognitive emotional function.  Further, I touched on aspects of attention problems and the role of anxiety in obstructing focus and its contribution to disease. I ended with a brief overview of neuroscience and the important role of keeping anxiety in check.  I believe this presentation can be useful to many, as it is to my daily self maintenance.

philos1

Revealing Your Childs Behavior in Context

 

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The Eyes have it…and then not

eye


I remember past readings from different sources about body language and face reading, that pupil responses can reveal much about the listener during dialogue.  I remember also from my training in medicine, how the pupil is innervated by nerve systems which categorically exists in two separate camps.  One is the sympathetic circuit, which seems to follow a particular concert of arousal activities.  During this state, there is a preparation for action e.g. physical  aggression.  The heart races, there is a movement of blood flow to central core survival pathways, the blood pressure increases and any mechanism for restorative functions are placed on hold (such as urination and digestion).  The parasympathetic circuit runs almost antagonistic to the sympathetic circuit,  It is most evident in slowing the heart rate, restorative and allows for eliminations and digestion.  This all made possible by the way organ systems respond to similar chemical messages.  How efficient this is!

Allow me to elaborate.  Epinephrine (adrenaline) is like sliding a long finger across three receptor buttons, each with different intensity

.

fingerbutton 

 This arrangement of buttons have a particular effect, as is consistent with epinephrine.  However, Dopamine, which is a precursor to epinephrine, has a structure similar, but not the same as epinephrine.  At low doses it acts on the same buttons (a1, a2 ,b1).  However, when the dose of dopamine is increased it begins to push a different set of buttons (a2, b1, b2).  Now instead of increasing the blood pressure, it begins to open up blood flow in regions consistent with a parasympathetic circuit, leading to decreased pressure and relaxing the bladder.  Such actions are common for many drugs, in that a change of dosing can have a significant change in effect.  This point helps people suffering from asthma may find some medicines are contraindicated for heart problems.  Beta 2 buttons open the airway, but beta 1 medicines cause hypertension and tend toward bronchioconstriction.

Now considering this sympathetic and parasympathetic matter, there seems to be an emotional interplay with pupil dilatation. When on is in love (infatuation), and the pupil dilates as when the sympathetic system kicks in.  The mouth gets dry, the hands sweat and the heart races.  This tells you that the pupil response is somehow tied directly into the limbic system,  or the emotional brain. Now if emotions seemed to fluctuate based on interest, it would be reasonable to assume that the expressions of the sympathetic system would follow.  In the following article I believe one may assume that decisions based solely on emotions would lead to a naive and loosely dedicated commitment to matters of interest.  What one would expect to see in a “naive audience” would be a highly reactive attention with a significant variability in the course of a discussion of a valued topic.

Read the following article and see if you would agree.


Pupil size shows reliability of decisions

Press release from PLOS Computational Biology

The precision with which people make decisions can be predicted by measuring pupil size before they are presented with any information about the decision, according to a new study published in PLOS Computational Biology this week.

The study, conducted by Peter Murphy and colleagues at Leiden University, showed that spontaneous, moment-to-moment fluctuations in pupil size predicted how a selection of participants varied in their successful decision making. A larger pupil size indicated poorer upcoming task performance, due to more variability in the decisions made once the relevant information was presented. The authors also found that certain individuals who had the largest pupils overall also tended to be the least consistent in their decisions.

The results were obtained by measuring pupil size before each segment of the task began and monitoring each participant’s subsequent performance in deciding which direction a cloud of dots was moving in. These results were then combined with a simple mathematical model that described how people make decisions.

These findings reveal that a person’s state of responsiveness, as measured by pupil size, is a key determinant of the variability of the decisions they make about the world around them.When hyper-responsive, our decision making appears to be less reliable and will more likely lead to undesirable outcomes. Critically, the findings also open up areas for future research aimed at improving the precision with which we make decisions, to help us achieve better outcomes from the choices that we make.

The results were obtained by measuring the pupil size of 26 volunteers as they performed a visual choice-based task designed to mimic the kinds of challenging perceptual decisions that are frequently encountered in everyday life. Pupil size gives a good indication of how responsive a person is at any given moment, with larger pupils correlating with increased responsiveness, though little was previously understood about how pupil size might relate to our ability to make reliable perceptual judgements.

Dr Murphy comments, “we are constantly required to make decisions about the world we live in. Researchers have long known that the accuracy and reliability of such everyday decision making can be tremendously variable for different people at different times, but we understand quite little about where this variability comes from. In this study, we show that how precise and reliable a person is in making a straightforward decision about motion can be predicted by simply measuring their pupil size. This finding suggests that the reliability with which an individual will make an upcoming decision is at least partly determined by pupil-linked ‘arousal’ or alertness, and furthermore, can potentially be deciphered on the fly. This new information could prove valuable for future research aimed at enhancing the precision of decision making in real time.”

All works published in PLOS Computational Biology are open access, which means that everything is immediately and freely available. Use this URL in your coverage to provide readers access to the paper upon publication: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/pcbi.1003854

Press-only preview: http://www.plos.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/plcb-10-09-Murphy.pdf 

 
Contact Details:

Dr Peter Murphy

Email: murphyp7@tcd.ie;p.murphy@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

Phone: (071) – 527 3874

Citation: Murphy PR, Vandekerckhove J, Nieuwenhuis S (2014) Pupil-Linked Arousal Determines Variability in Perceptual Decision Making. PLoS Comput Biol 10(9): e1003854. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003854

Funding: This research was supported by a Starting Independent Researcher Grant of the European Research Council awarded to SN. JV was supported by NSF grant #1230118 from the Methods, Measurements, and Statistics panel. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

 

About PLOS Computational Biology

PLOS Computational Biology features works of exceptional significance that further our understanding of living systems at all scales through the application of computational methods. All works published in PLOS Computational Biology are open access. Everything is immediately available subject only to the condition that the original authorship and source are properly attributed. Copyright is retained. For more information, visit http://www.ploscompbiol.org, and follow @PLOSCompBiol on Twitter. 

 
About the Public Library of Science

PLOS is a nonprofit organization that accelerates progress in science and medicine by leading a transformation in research communication. For more information, visit http://www.plos.org.

 

Her revealing face: Indicative Traits of women by their face?

 

 

Face Traits

Women’s traits ‘written on face’

A woman’s personality traits may be “written all over her face”, research has suggested.

The Glasgow University and New Scientist study examined whether self-assessed personality characteristics could be identified from appearance.

It claimed that women’s faces were easier to read than men’s faces, with greater success in matching traits.

Glasgow University’s Dr Rob Jenkins said: “We did not expect there to be such a difference between the sexes.”

Dr Jenkins, a specialist in the psychology of social interaction, devised the study, along with Professor Richard Wiseman, of the University of Hertfordshire.

Dr Jenkins said the research should pave the way for further investigations into the link between a person’s character and their appearance.

“Past studies have shown that people do associate facial appearance with certain personality traits and that our snap judgements of faces really do suggest a kernel of truth about the personality of their owner,” he said.

Our perception of lucky-looking male faces is at odds with reality
Dr Rob Jenkins
Glasgow University

For the study of more than 1,000 New Scientist readers, participants were asked to submit a photograph of themselves looking directly at the camera and to complete an online personality questionnaire – rating how lucky, humorous, religious and trustworthy they believed themselves to be.

From the personality self-assessments, the experts identified groups of men and women scoring at the extremes of each of the four personality dimensions.

The photographs were then blended electronically to make several composite images.

“This allowed us to calculate an average of the two faces,” Dr Jenkins said. “For example, if both faces have bushy eyebrows and deep-set eyes, the resulting composite would also have these features.

“We wanted to know whether people would be able to identify the personalities of the individuals behind the images.

“To find this out we paired up composites from the extreme ends of each dimension and posted them online.

“For example, the composite face from the women who had rated themselves as extremely lucky was paired with the composite from those who had rated themselves as very unlucky.”

Transparent faces

More than 6,500 visitors to the site attempted to identify the lucky, humorous, religious and trustworthy faces. From this, it appeared that women’s faces were more transparent, or “gave more away”, than men’s faces.

A total of 70% of people were able to correctly identify the lucky face and 73% correctly identified the religious one.

In line with past research, the female composite associated with trustworthiness was also accurately identified, with a 54% success rate.

Only one of the female composites was not correctly identified – the one from the women who assessed themselves as humorous.

However, Dr Jenkins said none of the male composites was correctly identified.

“The images identified with being humorous, trustworthy and religious all came in around chance, whilst the lucky composite was only correctly identified 22% of the time,” he said.

“This suggests that our perception of lucky-looking male faces is at odds with reality.

“If there was nothing in this at all then the score should have been 50% across the board, but it wasn’t. Perhaps female faces are simply more informative than male ones.”

Dr Jenkins added that other reasons to explain the findings could be that male participants were less insightful or less honest when rating their personalities, or perhaps that women were more thoughtful when selecting the photographs they submitted.

“Overall the data is fascinating,” he said. “It pushes the envelope in that we are looking at subtle aspects of psychological make-up.

“It also shows that people readily associate facial appearance with certain personality traits.

“It’s possible that there is some correlation between appearance and personality because both are influenced by our genetic make-up.”

 

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