Category Archives: Medical Clues

Crude diagnostics, just in case. (Personal Favorites)

Women: A Man’s Finer “Points”

Women: A Man’s finer Points

I have recently read an article that underscores predisposing components for behavioural tendencies which starts in utero. What this article states is how testosterone in the development of the foetus plays a very significant role in adults.  In females, there does not seem to be a great deal of influence.  However, numerous studies seem to consistently show that the behavioural tendencies of men are correlated with the level of testosterone.

The article also states that the influence of testosterone in utero also contributes to the finger length as well.


This is not the first time I have seen articles about finger length and testosterone levels in utero. But what was interesting was how this article  used a ratio of the 2nd and 4rth digits for classification.
In other words, if the index finger and ring finger is close in length, then the level of testosterone was appropriately supplied in utero.
Having appropriate levels also seem to contribute to a more agreeable constitution as well ( as represented in the study). 




 For example, a male having a narrow ratio with the Index to ring finger seems to indicate he would be less argumentative with his female counterpart as well as with women in general.  In fact, he would more likely to be a good listener and interact well with children.   Sounds like a “handy” thing to know, doesn’t it? So, Have I stirred your interest?  Enjoy the article below.

A video related to this topic can be found here:


Can you judge a man by his fingers?
Study finds link between relative lengths of index and ring fingers in men and behavior towards women


This news release is available in French.

Maybe you should take a good look at your partner’s fingers before putting a ring on one. Men with short index fingers and long ring fingers are on average nicer towards women, and this unexpected phenomenon stems from the hormones these men have been exposed to in their mother’s womb, according to a new study by researchers at McGill University. The findings might help explain why these men tend to have more children. The study, showing a link between a biological event in fetal life and adult behaviour, was published in the journal Personality and Individual Differences.

Men’s index fingers are generally shorter than their ring fingers. The difference is less pronounced in women. Previous research has found that digit ratio – defined as the second digit length divided by the fourth digit length – is an indication of the amount of male hormones, chiefly testosterone, someone has been exposed to as a fetus: the smaller the ratio, the more male hormones. The McGill study suggests that this has an impact on how adult men behave, especially with women.

“It is fascinating to see that moderate variations of hormones before birth can actually influence adult behaviour in a selective way,” says Simon Young, a McGill Emeritus Professor in Psychiatry and coauthor of the study.

Smiles and compliments

Several studies have been conducted previously to try to assess the impact of digit ratio on adult behaviour. This one is the first to highlight how finger lengths affect behaviour differently depending on the sex of the person you are interacting with. “When with women, men with smaller ratios were more likely to listen attentively, smile and laugh, compromise or compliment the other person,” says Debbie Moskowitz, lead author and Professor of Psychology at McGill. They acted that way in sexual relationships, but also with female friends or colleagues. These men were also less quarrelsome with women than with men, whereas the men with larger ratios were equally quarrelsome with both. For women though, digit ratio variation did not seem to predict how they behaved, the researchers report.

Digit ratio and children

For 20 days, 155 participants in the study filled out forms for every social interaction that lasted 5 minutes or more, and checked off a list of behaviours they engaged in. Based on prior work, the scientists classified the behaviours as agreeable or quarrelsome. Men with small digit ratios reported approximately a third more agreeable behaviours and approximately a third fewer quarrelsome behaviours than men with large digit ratios.

A previous study had found that men with smaller digit ratios have more children. “Our research suggests they have more harmonious relationships with women; these behaviors support the formation and maintenance of relationships with women,” Moskowitz says. “This might explain why they have more children on average.”

The researchers were surprised to find no statistically relevant link between dominant behaviours and digit ratios. They suggest future research could study specific situations where male dominance varies – such as competitive situations with other men – to see whether a correlation can be established.


This study was funded by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – Canada.

“Fetal exposure to androgens, as indicated by digit ratios (2D:4D), increases men’s agreeableness with women” D.S. Moskowitz, Rachel Sutton, David C. Zuroff, Simon N. Young, Personality and Individual Differences, March 2015 (available online 27 November 2014)

Women: A Man’s Finer “Points” was originally published on


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The Role of Butterflies in the Stomach ..

fearembar  The audience awaits your entrance.  The speaker is introducing you.  Your hands are feeling cold and your stomach feels nauseated. 

This is all to common for many.  I have even heard great preachers confess publicly how they can become physically sick before preaching. Is this normal? Surprisingly, yes. As you read this article, you will understand that the “butterflies” you feel, serve a very real purpose. Enjoy!



How the gut feeling shapes fear

22.05.2014 | Angelika Jacobs | Research

We are all familiar with that uncomfortable feeling in our stomach when faced with a threatening situation. By studying rats, researchers at ETH Zurich have been able to prove for the first time that our ‘gut instinct’ has a significant impact on how we react to fear.

gut feeling
Gut feeling: the gut influences brain processes involved in emotions like fear. ( / Montage: ETH Zurich)
An unlit, deserted car park at night, footsteps in the gloom. The heart beats faster and the stomach ties itself in knots. We often feel threatening situations in our stomachs. While the brain has long been viewed as the centre of all emotions, researchers are increasingly trying to get to the bottom of this proverbial gut instinct. It is not only the brain that controls processes in our abdominal cavity; our stomach also sends signals back to the brain. At the heart of this dialogue between the brain and abdomen is the vagus nerve, which transmits signals in both directions – from the brain to our internal organs (via the so called efferent nerves) and from the stomach back to our brain (via the afferent nerves). By cutting the afferent nerve fibres in rats, a team of scientists led by Urs Meyer, a researcher in the group of ETH Zurich professor Wolfgang Langhans, turned this two-way communication into a one-way street, enabling the researchers to get to the bottom of the role played by gut instinct. In the test animals, the brain was still able to control processes in the abdomen, but no longer received any signals from the other direction.

Less fear without gut instinct

In the behavioural studies, the researchers determined that the rats were less wary of open spaces and bright lights compared with controlled rats with an intact vagus nerve. “The innate response to fear appears to be influenced significantly by signals sent from the stomach to the brain,” says Meyer. Nevertheless, the loss of their gut instinct did not make the rats completely fearless: the situation for learned fear behaviour looked different. In a conditioning experiment, the rats learned to link a neutral acoustic stimulus – a sound – to an unpleasant experience. Here, the signal path between the stomach and brain appeared to play no role, with the test animals learning the association as well as the control animals. If, however, the researchers switched from a negative to a neutral stimulus, the rats without gut instinct required significantly longer to associate the sound with the new, neutral situation. This also fits with the results of a recently published study conducted by other researchers, which found that stimulation of the vagus nerve facilitates relearning, says Meyer. These findings are also of interest to the field of psychiatry, as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for example, is linked to the association of neutral stimuli with fear triggered by extreme experiences. Stimulation of the vagus nerve could help people with PTSD to once more associate the triggering stimuli with neutral experiences. Vagus nerve stimulation is already used today to treat epilepsy and, in some cases, depression.


Stomach influences signalling in the brain

“A lower level of innate fear, but a longer retention of learned fear – this may sound contradictory,” says Meyer. However, innate and conditioned fear are two different behavioural domains in which different signalling systems in the brain are involved. On closer investigation of the rats’ brains, the researchers found that the loss of signals from the abdomen changes the production of certain signalling substances, so called neurotransmitters, in the brain. “We were able to show for the first time that the selective interruption of the signal path from the stomach to the brain changed complex behavioural patterns. This has traditionally been attributed to the brain alone,” says Meyer. The study shows clearly that the stomach also has a say in how we respond to fear; however, what it says, i.e. precisely what it signals, is not yet clear. The researchers hope, however, that they will be able to further clarify the role of the vagus nerve and the dialogue between brain and body in future studies.

Further reading:

Klarer M, Arnold M, Günther L, Winter C, Langhans W, Meyer U: Gut Vagal Afferents Differentially Modulate Innate Anxiety and Learned Fear. The Journal of Neuroscience, May 21, 2014. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0252-14.2014 




What The Color of Your Urine Says About You

What The Color of Your Urine Says About You.

What The Color of Your Urine Says About You

Things you wanted to know, but never wanted to ask.



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 : automatically diagram your sentences!


If you are are a visual learner like I am, you would find it difficult to grasp the relationship of disease and symptoms in your differentials.  Well, I have found a very useful tool that addresses my deficit effectively.  This is Diagrammr.

I have used this often when watching House, MD.  I start by labeling the pathology as “x”.  If the subject becomes cyanotic and passes out.  I write these sentences:

X causes cyanosis

X causes LOC

Here is what results:






When the final diagnosis is revealed, I define it as X.







Mindmapping an unfolding chalkboard of symptoms, provides a fresh perspective for individual studies in diagnosis, as in watching House, MD.

Give it a try!

The Link is found here ( Link )


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“The Eyes have it” …Experiments with the Blind Spot

We all have blindspots.  This is not only true for our anatomy, but also true in a Psycho-Social sense.  Here is a great site for understanding your eyes and the blindspots with a interesting twist. Click the a good pupil. 🙂

Experiments with the Blind Spot.


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Peanut Butter Test May Detect Alzheimer’s — Health Hub from Cleveland Clinic

Peanut Butter Test May Detect Alzheimer’s — Health Hub from Cleveland Clinic.


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Pathology makes “Scents”

Good Information provided by “Differential Diagnosis in Internal Medicine, © 2007 Thieme”




Type of odor & Cause


Bad breath – Disturbances of the teeth, nose, tonsils, esophagus, or stomach

Putrid, fecal odor- Intestinal obstruction, esophageal diverticulum,

Sweet, putrid- Lung abscess, empyema (anaerobic), intranasal foreign body

Acetonelike, fruity – Ketoacidosis in diabetes mellitus or starvation;
chloroform or salicylate intoxication

Raw liver- (“fetor hepaticus”) Liver failure

Sweet- Diphtheria, hepatic precoma and coma

Fresh black bread- Typhus

Sourdough bread -Pellagra

Alcohol- Alcohol or phenol intoxication

Tobacco -Nicotine

Garlic Phosphorus, malathion, or arsenic intoxication

Shoe polish Nitrobenzene

Butcher shop -Yellow fever

Urine-like-  Uremia


Urine Odors


Sweet, caramellike -Maple syrup urine disease

Sweet, violetlike -Turpentine intoxication

Fishy, rancid butter- Tyrosinemia

“Mousy”- Phenylketonuria

Ammonia -Urinary tract infection with urea-splitting bacteria (e. g., Proteus)

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Posted by on March 26, 2014 in Medical Clues


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