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Category Archives: Genetics & Epigenetics

The Codes that constrain and Molding for the making

Women: A Man’s Finer “Points”

Women: A Man’s finer Points

I have recently read an article that underscores predisposing components for behavioural tendencies which starts in utero. What this article states is how testosterone in the development of the foetus plays a very significant role in adults.  In females, there does not seem to be a great deal of influence.  However, numerous studies seem to consistently show that the behavioural tendencies of men are correlated with the level of testosterone.


The article also states that the influence of testosterone in utero also contributes to the finger length as well.

 

This is not the first time I have seen articles about finger length and testosterone levels in utero. But what was interesting was how this article  used a ratio of the 2nd and 4rth digits for classification.
 
In other words, if the index finger and ring finger is close in length, then the level of testosterone was appropriately supplied in utero.
 
Having appropriate levels also seem to contribute to a more agreeable constitution as well ( as represented in the study). 

  

 

image 

 For example, a male having a narrow ratio with the Index to ring finger seems to indicate he would be less argumentative with his female counterpart as well as with women in general.  In fact, he would more likely to be a good listener and interact well with children.   Sounds like a “handy” thing to know, doesn’t it? So, Have I stirred your interest?  Enjoy the article below.



A video related to this topic can be found here:


PUBLIC RELEASE: 18-FEB-2015 

Can you judge a man by his fingers?
Study finds link between relative lengths of index and ring fingers in men and behavior towards women

MCGILL UNIVERSITY

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This news release is available in French.

Maybe you should take a good look at your partner’s fingers before putting a ring on one. Men with short index fingers and long ring fingers are on average nicer towards women, and this unexpected phenomenon stems from the hormones these men have been exposed to in their mother’s womb, according to a new study by researchers at McGill University. The findings might help explain why these men tend to have more children. The study, showing a link between a biological event in fetal life and adult behaviour, was published in the journal Personality and Individual Differences.

Men’s index fingers are generally shorter than their ring fingers. The difference is less pronounced in women. Previous research has found that digit ratio – defined as the second digit length divided by the fourth digit length – is an indication of the amount of male hormones, chiefly testosterone, someone has been exposed to as a fetus: the smaller the ratio, the more male hormones. The McGill study suggests that this has an impact on how adult men behave, especially with women.

“It is fascinating to see that moderate variations of hormones before birth can actually influence adult behaviour in a selective way,” says Simon Young, a McGill Emeritus Professor in Psychiatry and coauthor of the study.

Smiles and compliments

Several studies have been conducted previously to try to assess the impact of digit ratio on adult behaviour. This one is the first to highlight how finger lengths affect behaviour differently depending on the sex of the person you are interacting with. “When with women, men with smaller ratios were more likely to listen attentively, smile and laugh, compromise or compliment the other person,” says Debbie Moskowitz, lead author and Professor of Psychology at McGill. They acted that way in sexual relationships, but also with female friends or colleagues. These men were also less quarrelsome with women than with men, whereas the men with larger ratios were equally quarrelsome with both. For women though, digit ratio variation did not seem to predict how they behaved, the researchers report.

Digit ratio and children

For 20 days, 155 participants in the study filled out forms for every social interaction that lasted 5 minutes or more, and checked off a list of behaviours they engaged in. Based on prior work, the scientists classified the behaviours as agreeable or quarrelsome. Men with small digit ratios reported approximately a third more agreeable behaviours and approximately a third fewer quarrelsome behaviours than men with large digit ratios.

A previous study had found that men with smaller digit ratios have more children. “Our research suggests they have more harmonious relationships with women; these behaviors support the formation and maintenance of relationships with women,” Moskowitz says. “This might explain why they have more children on average.”

The researchers were surprised to find no statistically relevant link between dominant behaviours and digit ratios. They suggest future research could study specific situations where male dominance varies – such as competitive situations with other men – to see whether a correlation can be established.

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This study was funded by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – Canada.

“Fetal exposure to androgens, as indicated by digit ratios (2D:4D), increases men’s agreeableness with women” D.S. Moskowitz, Rachel Sutton, David C. Zuroff, Simon N. Young, Personality and Individual Differences, March 2015 (available online 27 November 2014) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886914006400

Women: A Man’s Finer “Points” was originally published on

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Making Scents of Fear

smellfear          "Don't smell of fear(??)!"

 

micepupsMany years ago, I had the pleasure to work as a research scientist in Germany.  I remember a profound discovery discussed in one of our lectures.  It was about an experiment conducted where a young adult female mouse was removed from a cage with her pups and placed in a stressful situation. Following the stress, the mother was returned to her pups. When the stress hormone was measured in the the adult mouse later, the resting stress level (cortisol) was elevated.  However, when the pups stress level was measured, it was found that their levels of cortisol were elevated from baseline measures as well. Some speculated that there was a change in the mother’s milk, that conveyed the change in fear threshold of her pups.  However, there was no chemical change discovered.  The mother’s initial aggitation would recover in a short time, yet there seemed to be a sustained change in cortisol level of the mother and the pups. Even though the pups were not exposed to the same stress.  Further, the pups  continued to possess an elevated stress level for a significant duration of time. Now based on this study, we see more clearly how the very scent of moms can reset the fear threshold of their infants.  Here is another great example of epigenetics.  There remains a mystery as how this information is related. Read the following article for more details.  

 


Learning the smell of fear: Mothers teach babies their own fears via odor, research finds

Research in rats may help explain how trauma’s effects can span generations

ANN ARBOR, Mich. — Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor of their distressed mothers, new research suggests. And not just “natural” fears: If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her baby will quickly learn to fear it too — through the odor she gives off when she feels fear.

In the first direct observation of this kind of fear transmission, a team of University of Michigan Medical School and New York University studied mother rats who had learned to fear the smell of peppermint – and showed how they “taught” this fear to their babies in their first days of life through their alarm odor released during distress.

In a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team reports how they pinpointed the specific area of the brain where this fear transmission takes root in the earliest days of life.

Their findings in animals may help explain a phenomenon that has puzzled mental health experts for generations: how a mother’s traumatic experience can affect her children in profound ways, even when it happened long before they were born.

The researchers also hope their work will lead to better understanding of why not all children of traumatized mothers, or of mothers with major phobias, other anxiety disorders or major depression, experience the same effects.

“During the early days of an infant rat’s life, they are immune to learning information about environmental dangers. But if their mother is the source of threat information, we have shown they can learn from her and produce lasting memories,” says Jacek Debiec, M.D., Ph.D., the U-M psychiatrist and neuroscientist who led the research.

“Our research demonstrates that infants can learn from maternal expression of fear, very early in life,” he adds. “Before they can even make their own experiences, they basically acquire their mothers’ experiences. Most importantly, these maternally-transmitted memories are long-lived, whereas other types of infant learning, if not repeated, rapidly perish.”

Peering inside the fearful brain

Debiec, who treats children and mothers with anxiety and other conditions in the U-M Department of Psychiatry, notes that the research on rats allows scientists to see what’s going on inside the brain during fear transmission, in ways they could never do in humans.

He began the research during his fellowship at NYU with Regina Marie Sullivan, Ph.D., senior author of the new paper, and continues it in his new lab at U-M’s Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute.

The researchers taught female rats to fear the smell of peppermint by exposing them to mild, unpleasant electric shocks while they smelled the scent, before they were pregnant. Then after they gave birth, the team exposed the mothers to just the minty smell, without the shocks, to provoke the fear response. They also used a comparison group of female rats that didn’t fear peppermint.

They exposed the pups of both groups of mothers to the peppermint smell, under many different conditions with and without their mothers present.

Using special brain imaging, and studies of genetic activity in individual brain cells and cortisol in the blood, they zeroed in on a brain structure called the lateral amygdala as the key location for learning fears. During later life, this area is key to detecting and planning response to threats – so it makes sense that it would also be the hub for learning new fears.

But the fact that these fears could be learned in a way that lasted, during a time when the baby rat’s ability to learn any fears directly was naturally suppressed, is what makes the new findings so interesting, says Debiec.

The team even showed that the newborns could learn their mothers’ fears even when the mothers weren’t present. Just the piped-in scent of their mother reacting to the peppermint odor she feared was enough to make them fear the same thing.

And when the researchers gave the baby rats a substance that blocked activity in the amygdala, they failed to learn the fear of peppermint smell from their mothers. This suggests, Debiec says, that there may be ways to intervene to prevent children from learning irrational or harmful fear responses from their mothers, or reduce their impact.

From animals to humans: next steps

The new research builds on what scientists have learned over time about the fear circuitry in the brain, and what can go wrong with it. That work has helped psychiatrists develop new treatments for human patients with phobias and other anxiety disorders – for instance, exposure therapy that helps them overcome fears by gradually confronting the thing or experience that causes their fear.

In much the same way, Debiec hopes that exploring the roots of fear in infancy, and how maternal trauma can affect subsequent generations, could help human patients. While it’s too soon to know if the same odor-based effect happens between human mothers and babies, the role of a mother’s scent in calming human babies has been shown.

Debiec, who hails from Poland, recalls working with the grown children of Holocaust survivors, who experienced nightmares, avoidance instincts and even flashbacks related to traumatic experiences they never had themselves. While they would have learned about the Holocaust from their parents, this deeply ingrained fear suggests something more at work, he says.

Going forward, he hopes to work with U-M researchers to observe human infants and their mothers — including U-M psychiatrist Maria Muzik, M.D. and psychologist Kate Rosenblum, Ph.D., who run a Women and Infants Mental Health clinic and research program and also work with military families. The program is currently seeking women and their children to take part in a range of studies; those interested in learning more can call the U-M Mental Health Research Line at (734) 232-0255.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DC009910, MH091451), and by a, NARSAD Young Investigator Award from the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, and University of Michigan funds. Reference: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1316740111

 

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The Edge of Good Bye, balancing the choice to live on


suicidepro

The edge of Goodbye


We may have a biochemical marker in the near future which can help flag those who are prone to suicidal attempts.  Researchers at John Hopkins University have discovered a gene that helps regulate the stimulation of cortisol.  When pressures mount, this gene, (known as SKA) apparently helps to limit the cortisol impact on the cortical receptors within the forebrain. Those individuals prone to suicidal activity were found to consistently have low SKA expression.

 

fast

Cortisol: the train

A good way for me to conceptualize this process is to think of cortisol as a speeding train moving through the brain.  It is set in motion by a perceived  stress we are experiencing.  Ideally, the cortisol prepares our bodies for a “get up and go” necessary to meet our challenges.  However, the brakes are necessary to slow the train down in order to remain in control of the moment. So if the cortisol is the train, then the SKA gene is the brakes.

handbrake

SKA:the breaks of the train

Studies have shown that the SKA gene remains unchanged in our makeup.  However, our life experiences can influence the expression of this SKA gene (known as epigenetic regulation). As you may grasp, when the expression of SKA is hindered, the cortisol released during periods of stress has no way to regulate activity downstream.  Cortisol becomes a runaway train. Life can become a train wreck.

1386594478000-train-derail 

Train wreck


See attached Article

A blood test for suicide?

Alterations to a single gene could predict risk of suicide attempt

Johns Hopkins researchers say they have discovered a chemical alteration in a single human gene linked to stress reactions that, if confirmed in larger studies, could give doctors a simple blood test to reliably predict a person’s risk of attempting suicide.

The discovery, described online in The American Journal of Psychiatry, suggests that changes in a gene involved in the function of the brain’s response to stress hormones plays a significant role in turning what might otherwise be an unremarkable reaction to the strain of everyday life into suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

“Suicide is a major preventable public health problem, but we have been stymied in our prevention efforts because we have no consistent way to predict those who are at increased risk of killing themselves,” says study leader Zachary Kaminsky, Ph.D., an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “With a test like ours, we may be able to stem suicide rates by identifying those people and intervening early enough to head off a catastrophe.”

For his series of experiments, Kaminsky and his colleagues focused on a genetic mutation in a gene known as SKA2. By looking at brain samples from mentally ill and healthy people, the researchers found that in samples from people who had died by suicide, levels of SKA2 were significantly reduced.

Within this common mutation, they then found in some subjects an epigenetic modification that altered the way the SKA2 gene functioned without changing the gene’s underlying DNA sequence. The modification added chemicals called methyl groups to the gene. Higher levels of methylation were then found in the same study subjects who had killed themselves. The higher levels of methylation among suicide decedents were then replicated in two independent brain cohorts.

In another part of the study, the researchers tested three different sets of blood samples, the largest one involving 325 participants in the Johns Hopkins Center for Prevention Research Study found similar methylation increases at SKA2 in individuals with suicidal thoughts or attempts. They then designed a model analysis that predicted which of the participants were experiencing suicidal thoughts or had attempted suicide with 80 percent certainty. Those with more severe risk of suicide were predicted with 90 percent accuracy. In the youngest data set, they were able to identify with 96 percent accuracy whether or not a participant had attempted suicide, based on blood test results.

The SKA2 gene is expressed in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, which is involved in inhibiting negative thoughts and controlling impulsive behavior. SKA2 is specifically responsible for chaperoning stress hormone receptors into cells’ nuclei so they can do their job. If there isn’t enough SKA2, or it is altered in some way, the stress hormone receptor is unable to suppress the release of cortisol throughout the brain. Previous research has shown that such cortisol release is abnormal in people who attempt or die by suicide.

Kaminsky says a test based on these findings might best be used to predict future suicide attempts in those who are ill, to restrict lethal means or methods among those a risk, or to make decisions regarding the intensity of intervention approaches.

He says that it might make sense for use in the military to test whether members have the gene mutation that makes them more vulnerable. Those at risk could be more closely monitored when they returned home after deployment. A test could also be useful in a psychiatric emergency room, he says, as part of a suicide risk assessment when doctors try to assess level of suicide risk.

The test could be used in all sorts of safety assessment decisions like the need for hospitalization and closeness of monitoring. Kaminsky says another possible use that needs more study could be to inform treatment decisions, such as whether or not to give certain medications that have been linked with suicidal thoughts.

“We have found a gene that we think could be really important for consistently identifying a range of behaviors from suicidal thoughts to attempts to completions,” Kaminsky says. “We need to study this in a larger sample but we believe that we might be able to monitor the blood to identify those at risk of suicide.”

Along with Kaminsky, other Johns Hopkins researchers involved in the study include Jerry Guintivano; Tori Brown; Alison Newcomer, M.Sc.; Marcus Jones; Olivia Cox; Brion Maher, Ph.D.; William Eaton, Ph.D.; Jennifer Payne, M.D.; and Holly Wilcox, Ph.D.

The research was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Mental Health (1R21MH094771-01), the Center for Mental Health Initiatives, The James Wah Award for Mood Disorders, and The Solomon R. and Rebecca D. Baker Foundation.

More information:

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/profiles/results/directory/profile/5411152/zachary-kaminsky

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/genetic_predictors_of_postpartum_depression_uncovered_by_johns_hopkins_researchers

Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM), headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland, is a $6.7 billion integrated global health enterprise and one of the leading health care systems in the United States. JHM unites physicians and scientists of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with the organizations, health professionals and facilities of The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System. JHM’s vision, “Together, we will deliver the promise of medicine,” is supported by its mission to improve the health of the community and the world by setting the standard of excellence in medical education, research and clinical care. Diverse and inclusive, JHM educates medical students, scientists, health care professionals and the public; conducts biomedical research; and provides patient-centered medicine to prevent, diagnose and treat human illness. JHM operates six academic and community hospitals, four suburban health care and surgery centers, and more than 30 primary health care outpatient sites. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, opened in 1889, was ranked number one in the nation for 21 years in a row by U.S. News & World Report.

Media Contact:

Lauren Nelson
410-955-8725; lnelso35@jhmi.edu

Helen Jones
410-502-9422; hjones49@jhmi.edu

 

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Her revealing face: Indicative Traits of women by their face?

 

 

Face Traits

Women’s traits ‘written on face’

A woman’s personality traits may be “written all over her face”, research has suggested.

The Glasgow University and New Scientist study examined whether self-assessed personality characteristics could be identified from appearance.

It claimed that women’s faces were easier to read than men’s faces, with greater success in matching traits.

Glasgow University’s Dr Rob Jenkins said: “We did not expect there to be such a difference between the sexes.”

Dr Jenkins, a specialist in the psychology of social interaction, devised the study, along with Professor Richard Wiseman, of the University of Hertfordshire.

Dr Jenkins said the research should pave the way for further investigations into the link between a person’s character and their appearance.

“Past studies have shown that people do associate facial appearance with certain personality traits and that our snap judgements of faces really do suggest a kernel of truth about the personality of their owner,” he said.

Our perception of lucky-looking male faces is at odds with reality
Dr Rob Jenkins
Glasgow University

For the study of more than 1,000 New Scientist readers, participants were asked to submit a photograph of themselves looking directly at the camera and to complete an online personality questionnaire – rating how lucky, humorous, religious and trustworthy they believed themselves to be.

From the personality self-assessments, the experts identified groups of men and women scoring at the extremes of each of the four personality dimensions.

The photographs were then blended electronically to make several composite images.

“This allowed us to calculate an average of the two faces,” Dr Jenkins said. “For example, if both faces have bushy eyebrows and deep-set eyes, the resulting composite would also have these features.

“We wanted to know whether people would be able to identify the personalities of the individuals behind the images.

“To find this out we paired up composites from the extreme ends of each dimension and posted them online.

“For example, the composite face from the women who had rated themselves as extremely lucky was paired with the composite from those who had rated themselves as very unlucky.”

Transparent faces

More than 6,500 visitors to the site attempted to identify the lucky, humorous, religious and trustworthy faces. From this, it appeared that women’s faces were more transparent, or “gave more away”, than men’s faces.

A total of 70% of people were able to correctly identify the lucky face and 73% correctly identified the religious one.

In line with past research, the female composite associated with trustworthiness was also accurately identified, with a 54% success rate.

Only one of the female composites was not correctly identified – the one from the women who assessed themselves as humorous.

However, Dr Jenkins said none of the male composites was correctly identified.

“The images identified with being humorous, trustworthy and religious all came in around chance, whilst the lucky composite was only correctly identified 22% of the time,” he said.

“This suggests that our perception of lucky-looking male faces is at odds with reality.

“If there was nothing in this at all then the score should have been 50% across the board, but it wasn’t. Perhaps female faces are simply more informative than male ones.”

Dr Jenkins added that other reasons to explain the findings could be that male participants were less insightful or less honest when rating their personalities, or perhaps that women were more thoughtful when selecting the photographs they submitted.

“Overall the data is fascinating,” he said. “It pushes the envelope in that we are looking at subtle aspects of psychological make-up.

“It also shows that people readily associate facial appearance with certain personality traits.

“It’s possible that there is some correlation between appearance and personality because both are influenced by our genetic make-up.”

 

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This is your Stem Cell

 AuthorGregcard

 

stem_cell

 

It was during my studies in Medical School.  We were covering Histology and Cell Biology.  Many terms were flying around making it difficult to get an adequate grasp of the various cell lines that originate from the Pluripotent Stem cell.  It was amazing to concept to consider. One cell, the all-in-one component, that had no clear identity, yet possessed everything it needed to become ANY cell type the body required.  I sat at a restaurant reviewing my notes when a model came to my head.  I began drawing on napkins when this model emerged.  It has proven useful for many years and helps me understand this subject  better as topics about stem cells, leukemia and anemia are discussed.

Allow me to share a short overview through a series of images I reproduced from those sketches.  Later I will share some defining aspects of this model and how this model proves useful in grasping all Leukemia, stem cell studies, and blood disorders clearly,and easily.


 

stemcell_frontobliq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Top of the Pyramid is the Stem Cell. It is also called Pluripotent, because it has the potential to become ANY cell that the body requires.  Now every cell in the body has your genetic code, in other words every cell reads the same blue prints.  However, these blue prints have many pages, so that each cell at the time of their defining moment will be told what page they should read.  This is made possible by the messages conveyed to each cell. After receiving their primary instruction, they begin to produce small translating proteins governed by a factory inside the nucleus.  These small proteins will help unfold a specific condensed coil of DNA (blueprints) and twist it out in the open sea of transcribing proteins.  These proteins will then start the initial modifications which gives the cell an identity and function. So every cell reads the same DNA, but their identity is determined by what part of the code it reads. Beautiful, isn’t it?

Anyway, back to the model.  You will see three main path directions the stem cell can roll down the pyramid.  It can roll to the right towards the Red Blood cell pathway, to the left towards the Lymphocyte pathway or toward the front which is the Granulocytic pathway.

Now, here allow me to pause and mention that all cells carry their DNA through their lifetime, EXCEPT for Red Blood Cells (RBC).  The reason is because their role is so clearly defined at maturation that they no longer require the blueprints.  Furthermore they do not have the room to carry the unnecessary machinery if they are to use as much space as they can for Hemoglobin, to carry needed oxygen to your tissues and organs.  Their role on life’s stage is about 3 months anyway, so they need to be optimal for a short time before they are recycled.

You may be wondering how the pluripotent stem cell knows which side to roll down? Well, as the cell begins the early stage of development, signals are provided from the instructions of your body needs.  This tells the DNA to unfold just in certain areas which instruct the proteins inside the cell to form small “foot” receptors for cell mobility.  These foot receptors stick outside the cell wall and  snap into certain floor stepping stones which tilt the balance toward that edge.  Then as the cell begins it’s roll down the descending wall, it makes contact on the specified textured side  stones, which provides further signaling to the cell machinery.  This helps to explain how the developing “foot”processes form, directing the undefined character of the cell toward further differentiation and identity.


 

  Lets look at the next slide.

 stemcell_above_lymph

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this slide, you are standing above the model. I provided a map to summarize what I have already discussed.


sc_lyph_slide_sideobliq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This slide shows the lymphocytic side of the model.  Notice, that I have labeled a textured stone as CD19.  This is a cytologic marker which is on every lymphocyte. This is an example of the type of stepping stone that helps ambulate the unique foot process of a defining lymphocyte.  As I continue to gather more data, I plan to further develop the stepping stones or cell markers  that characterizes each cell type.

Now as the lymphocyte rolls further down it will differentiate further.  Let us move to that slide.


lymphopath

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here we have the next branch of maturation for lymphocytes.  They will become either T-cell or B-cells.  Their role is to police infection , but their tasks are different. They may become presenter cells (to show foreign material to infection station, or some even become Killer cells.  These cells are like a Highway Patrol, which frisks passing cells during their travels and pulling random cells over that look suspicious. If there is a cause of concern, the Killer cells have authority to activate a self destruct button on that cell.  This is important as such cells may be  harboring a virus hidden away inside it’s machinery.

Under the right signal conditions, the B-cell proliferates and becomes a Plasma cell.  These plasma cells become powerful micro-factories and takes on the task of generating “target-specific rockets”, designed to eliminate foreign saboteurs. Tons of these special rockets are sent out to move along with the traffic increasing the likelihood of bumping into it’s target, if it exists.   

There are a wide range of important functions here.  I can discuss this in a future blog.

However, I do wish to point out that I made the developmental parts of each lymphocyte branch as stairs for a reason.  Sometimes there are stages in cell development where it is more sensitive to specific infections.Such is the case for Burkitt’s Lymphoma,  It seems to attack B-cells during the intermediate stage of development.  Therefore in including this added feature to my model, it helps me to remember that this set of stairs are clinically significant.


granulo2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The front platform is the  granulocytic side of the pyramid.  The stem cell rolls toward this path because of a signaling messenger call Granulocyte Stimulating Factor (GSF).  As it rolls toward the front it becomes further differentiated into various white cells.  To clarify an earlier point, if GSF is present and the cell rolls this direction, it may receive a signal from Interleukin-5.  If it has the correct receptors, these cells will tilt and drop off as Eosinophils.  I must go but I hope to share more later.  I hope my model proves useful to you the reader..

Thanks for reading.

 

Greg E. Williams, MD

 See Animated Video of this model:

http://youtu.be/wgaQbN2lxpc

 

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Psychology Metasites and Megasites

Links to psychology metasites, sites with content and/or links spanning a large number of areas of psychology.

Link

 

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Link

GENETIC DISEASE LISTING


chrm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In order to understand disease, the comparison in expression of similar diseases, even from a different chromosome origin, can provide clues of similar mechanics or contributing combinations which promote emergence of disease.  Here is a raw list from wikipedia of the more common pathologies.  In a future blog, I plan to outline a list of genetic variants for Psychological / behavioral disorders for reference.

GW

 

en.wikipedia.org-List_of_genetic_disorders

 

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